22 February 2022, Volume 33 Issue 02

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  • Hongyu Lin, Zhaochao Xu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 573-574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.093
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    We comment the recent paper which reported a series of TPA derivatives to show acid-induced tunable white light emission.
  • Reviews
  • Peng Gao, Hui Wang, Yiyun Cheng
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 575-586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.023
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    Photothermal therapy (PTT), typically ablates tumors via hyperthermia generated from photothermal agents (PTAs) under laser irradiation, has attracted great attentions in the past decades. Unfortunately, longstanding, frequent and high-power density laser irradiations are needed to maintain the hyperthermal status (>50 ℃) for efficient therapy, which will damage the skin and nearby healthy tissues. Suppressing cancer cells with a mild temperature elevation is more attractive and feasible for PTT. Recently, low-temperature photothermal therapy (LTPTT), which could inhibit tumor under mild hyperthermia, has been widely investigated by researchers. Herein, we systematically summarized the strategies to achieve LTPTT. Diverse PTAs including organic and inorganic materials reported for LTPTT were introduced. The established strategies for LTPTT were intensively described. Finally, the challenges as well as future perspectives in this field were discussed.
  • Kosheli Thapa Magar, George Frimpong Boafo, Xiaotong Li, Zhongjian Chen, Wei He
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 587-596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.020
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    Biological drugs are attracting tremendous attention in disease treatment. However, their application is significantly limited by their inherent properties, such as high hydrophilicity, poor membrane-permeability, low stability, and larger size. Liposome-based drug delivery systems are emerging as promising tools to improve their delivery, owing to their ability to reduce toxicity, improve bioavailability, and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the drug by optimizing delivery to the specific target site. Here, we reviewed the types of liposomes and their applications as carriers for biological drugs to treat various diseases, emphasized the commercial products, and ultimately provided perspectives in this field.
  • Yuejia Song, Yaqian Huang, Fang Zhou, Jinsong Ding, Wenhu Zhou
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 597-612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.090
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    Macrophage is the key innate immune effector in first-line defense against the pathogens, and can be polarized into different phenotypes to regulate a variety of immunological functions. However, the plasticity of macrophage is extraordinarily recruited, activated, and polarized under pathological conditions, playing paramount roles in occurrence, development, and prognosis of various chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atherosclerosis (AS), and cancer. To this end, macrophage has become an important therapeutic target for etiological treatment of these diseases. Meanwhile, with the development of nanotechnology, various nano-drug delivery systems have been explored to target macrophages for disease modulation, displaying unique advantages to address both pharmaceutic and biopharmaceutic limitations of various drugs. This review aims to summarize the recent progress of macrophage-targeted nanomedicine for chronic diseases immunotherapy. First, the origin, polarization and biological functions of macrophages have been introduced, in which macrophages can differentiate into different phenotypes in response to physiological stimuli to play various immunological roles. Then, the macrophage disorder has been reviewed in related with various chronic diseases, and several representative diseases, including AS, RA, obesity, and cancer, have been discussed in detail to elucidate the pathological contributions of macrophages for disease progress. Next, strategies to regulate macrophages for diseases immunotherapy, such as macrophages depletion, macrophage reprograming, inhibition of macrophage recruitment, are summarized, and particular attention has been paid on bio-functional nanomaterials to engineer macrophages via different mechanisms. Further, methods for macrophage-targeting delivery nanosystems are discussed based on both passive and active targeting approaches. Finally, the perspective is speculated for potential clinical translation, and there still has significant room for the development of novel macrophage-targeting nanomedicine for precise, effective, and biosafe therapy.
  • Xin Yang, Xue Li, Boyang Wang, Lin Ai, Guoping Li, Bai Yang, Siyu Lu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 613-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.077
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    Carbon dots (CDs), novel luminescent zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterials, have been widely applied due to their low toxicity, optimal optical properties, and easy modification. However, the current controllable equipment and mechanism explanation of CDs are relatively vague and require urgent resolution. Full-color emission CDs, an essential CDs category, have attracted people's attention given their light and color-tunable properties. In addition to a wider range of biological and optoelectronic device applications, full-color emission CDs have similar structures and significantly affected the fluorescence mechanism of CDs. At present, few studies have reported on the summary research of CDs emitted by its full color, which greatly limits the development of CDs mechanisms and applications. As such, the present review detailed the full-color CDs development status, to which a suitable method for preparing full-color CDs was presented and the existing fluorescence emission mechanism of full-color CDs was summarized. Herein, we comprehensively introduced full-color CDs applications in biology and optoelectronics. Finally, we made an outlook on the development and potential applications of full-color CDs. The present review aims to contribute novel insights and methods for understanding full-color CDs.
  • Qiang Wang, Hongjian Song, Qingmin Wang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 626-642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.064
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    In this review, the methodologies for fluorine incorporation of 40 fluorine-containing agrochemicals that received an international standardization organization (ISO) name during the last decade are described. The predominant approach for fluorine introduction of these agrochemicals is to use a fluorine-containing building block. Here we present how the fluorine-containing building blocks are introduced into these agrochemicals. The synthetic methods of fluorine-containing building blocks that are not easily available are also specifically discussed. Fluoroarenes, difluomethylarenes and trifluomethylarenes are the main building blocks that have been used in this review. Fluorine-containing small molecules, such as alcohol, amine, ketoester, olefin are also widely used. The only example of late-stage fluorination is the synthesis of fungicide quinofumelin. We believe the fluorine introduction methods described here can provide ideas for the development of new and economical pesticide synthetic routes, and stimulate researchers to develop new fluorine incorporation methods and create new pesticides.
  • Ruicheng Ji, Jiabin Chen, Tongcai Liu, Xuefei Zhou, Yalei Zhang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 643-652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.043
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    In the field of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of wastewater, many materials can be used as heterogeneous catalysts. The role of these catalysts is to activate oxidants and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to decompose refractory pollutants. Perovskite oxide, an emerging catalyst in the field of AOPs, has been extensively studied in wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the application of perovskite in AOP systems still faces some problems, such as leaching of metal ions, a small surface area, a low number of active sites, etc. Herein, this critical review comparatively examines the activation mechanisms of peroxymonosulfate, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxydisulfate. Furthermore, the formation pathways of oxidizing species based on recent advances in experimental and theoretical studies were evaluated. In addition, the impacts of water parameters and constituents such as initial pH, oxidant concentration, catalyst dosage, natural organic matter, halide, phosphate, and carbonate were discussed. Finally, a critical discussion and prospects of mechanism exploration and possible materials development are proposed to confront the existing challenges in the application of perovskite oxides in AOPs.
  • Zining Wang, Mingyue Liu, Fan Xiao, Georgeta Postole, Hongying Zhao, Guohua Zhao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 653-662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.044
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    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) are effective and environmentally friendly for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants. Among EAOPs, heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) process with in-situ formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an eco-friendly, cost-effective and easy-operable technology to generate hydroxyl radicals (·OH) with high redox potential. The generation of ·OH is determined by the synergistic H2O2 formation and activation. The surface catalytic mechanisms for H2O2 activation in the heterogeneous EF process were discussed. Some required features such as heteroatom doping and oxygen groups for H2O2 formation via selective two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with carbonaceous electrode are summarized. The solid Fenton catalysts and integrated functional cathodes that widely used in heterogeneous EF for wastewater treatment are grouped into few classes. And the brief discussion on catalytic activity and stability of materials over different experimental conditions are given. In addition, the application of heterogeneous EF process on the remediation of emerging contaminants is provided. The challenges and future prospects of the heterogeneous EF processes about catalytic fall-off and multi-step/complex techniques for water purification are emphasized.
  • Yanan Shang, Xiaoguang Duan, Shaobin Wang, Qinyan Yue, Baoyu Gao, Xing Xu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 663-673. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.050
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    Carbon-based single-atom catalysts (SACs) with atomic sizes of active sites have become the promising candidates for a variety of catalytic systems because of their high atom utilization, and unique electronic structures. Different types of single-atom sites can be fabricated via multiple preparation strategies, which would demonstrate distinct different coordination configurations and electronic features, and ultimately affected the structure-catalysis relationship of SACs in targeted reactions. As a result, it is necessary to identify the active sites of SACs and understand the structure-catalysis relationship of SACs at the atomic scale. In this review, a variety of preparation strategies of carbon-based SACs were documented. Then, the recent development on versatile characterization techniques and computational achievements were summarized regarding in understanding the electronic and geometric characteristics of carbon-based SACs. Finally, major challenges and development directions concerning single-atom sites identification and advanced tools development are discussed to shed light on future research of carbon-based SACs.
  • Yinghua Niu, Weirong Huo, Yuandong Yu, Wenjun Li, Yulin Chen, Weiqiang Lv
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 674-682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.037
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    To lower the operation temperature and increase the durability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), increasing attentions have been paid on developing cathode materials with good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity at intermediate-temperature (IT, 500-750 ℃) range. However, most cathode materials exhibit poor catalytic activity, or they thermally mismatch with SOFC electrolytes and undergo severe degeneration. Infiltrating catalysts on existing backbone materials has been proved to be an efficient method to construct highly active and durable cathodes. In this mini-review, the advantages of infiltration-based cathode compared with new material-based cathodes are summarized. The merits and drawbacks of different backbones are illustrated. Different types of catalysts for infiltration are depicted in detail. Suggestions on the material/structure optimization of the infiltrated cathodes of IT-SOFC are provided.
  • Huimin Liu, Qinglei Liu, Yarong Wang, Yongfei Wang, Shulei Chou, Zhizhi Hu, Zhiqiang Zhang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 683-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.038
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    Efficient bifunctional OER/ORR catalysts are crucial for the further development of zinc-air battery. From a sustainable point of view, it is important that electrocatalysts are efficient, low cost, and composed of abundant resources instead of scarce metals. Due to their good conductivity, low cost, and strong durability, carbon-based materials are considered a promising alternative in the field of commercial zinc-air battery catalysts. Herein, we briefly introduce the zinc-air battery and then summarize recent progress in the development of carbon-based bifunctional catalysts by defect engineering, heteroatom doping and metal doping. Finally, we discuss the main challenges and prospects for the future development of carbon-based bifunctional oxygen catalysts.
  • Yutian Qin, Yue Wan, Jun Guo, Meiting Zhao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 693-702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.013
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    As emerging two-dimensional materials, metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheet composites possess many unique physical and chemical properties, thus being expected to be widely applied in gas separation and adsorption, energy conversion and storage, heterogeneous catalysis, sensing as well as biomedicine. In this review, we first introduce the methods for integrating MOF nanosheets with other materials to prepare multifunctional composites. Next, the applications of MOF nanosheet composites in versatile fields are summarized and discussed. We hope this review will be instructive for researchers in the aspects of designs, preparations and applications of MOF nanosheet composites.
  • Bingxin Wu, Fanglin Du, Wenjing A, Guofeng Li, Xing Wang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 703-713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.029
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    Graphene-based sponge is a novel hemostatic material prepared by chemical cross-link of graphene oxide. It has a fast fluid absorption capacity to quickly absorb blood from wounds, activate clotting pathways, and achieve rapid hemostasis. In addition, graphene-based sponge is also a good platform carrier. It can be prepared by organic cross-linking, compounding with inorganic clay, and adding bioactive factors to enhance coagulation stimulation. By these methods, the hemostatic performance of the sponge is further improved, which shows great potential for application in the field of trauma hemostasis. This article reviews the research progress of graphene-based sponges from three different preparation strategies (organic cross-linking, inorganic compounding and adding bioactive factor), summarizes their hemostatic mechanisms, and prospects the development of graphene-based hemostatic sponges.
  • Tingting Wei, Nan Zhang, Yurui Ji, Junhong Zhang, Yanrong Zhu, Tingfeng Yi
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 714-729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.037
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    Transition metal oxides (TMO) bring a novel direction for the development of energy store materials due to their excellent stability. They not only have high capacity and good cycle performance, but also are cheap and easily available. Zinc oxide (ZnO) as an important part of TMO have gradually attracted attention in the research of electrochemistry. ZnO, as a metal semiconductor with the advantages of wide band gap, possesses high ion migration rate, good chemical stability, simple preparation and low cost, and is widely used in various fields. However, poor conductivity, low permittivity and quick capacity decays quickly impede the commercial application of these electrodes. In recent years, in order to improve the structural stability, ion diffusion and conductivity of zinc oxides-based anodes, various strategies have been raised, such as structural design, surface modification and composition control. In this paper, the recent advances of zinc oxides-based materials for batteries and hybrid supercapacitors (SCs) were introduced. We comprehensively reviewed the prepared process, reaction mechanism and electrochemical performance and discussed the shortcoming of zinc oxides-based nanomaterials. In particular, several insights toward the future research development, practical applications and commercialization of energy storage devices are also proposed for improving the performance of zinc oxides-based materials.
  • Nkongolo Tshamala Aristote, Kangyu Zou, Andi Di, Wentao Deng, Baowei Wang, Xinglan Deng, Hongshuai Hou, Guoqiang Zou, Xiaobo Ji
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 730-742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.049
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    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have gained more scientists' interest, owing to some facts such as the natural abundance of Na, the similarities of physicochemical characteristics between Li and Na. The irreversible Na+ ions consumption during the first cycle of charge/discharge process (due to the formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the electrode surface and other irreversible reactions) is the factor that determines high performance SIBs and largely reduces the capacity of the full cell SIBs. Thus, the initial coulombic efficiency (ICE) of SIBs for both anode and cathode materials, is a key parameter for high performance SIBs, and the point is to increase the transport rate of the Na+ ions. Therefore, developing SIBs with high ICE and rate performance becomes vital to boost the commercialization of SIBs. Here we provide a review on the methods to improve the ICE and the rate performance, by summarizing some methods of improving the ICE and rate performance of the anode and cathode materials for SIBs, and end by a conclusion with some perspectives and recommendations.
  • Communications
  • Huan Zhao, Enben Su, Li Huang, Yunfeng Zai, Yuan Liu, Zhu Chen, Song Li, Lian Jin, Yan Deng, Nongyue He
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 743-746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.017
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    Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) has always been a great challenge in detecting cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in whole blood samples without centrifugation because of the interference of red blood cells and low sensitivity. In this study, the antigens and erythrocytes in the blood were captured by the antibodies immobilized on the magnetic particles, recognized by another biotin-conjugated cTnI antibody and detected by streptavidin/acridine aster-conjugated polychloromethylstyrene microspheres (PCMS). After magnetic separation, the supernatant was transferred and measured. No significant difference was noted between the cTnI concentrations of the serum samples, plasma samples and whole blood. The prepared PCMS provided more functional areas to conjugate streptavidin and acridinium ester, so the immunoassay has highly sensitive, the limits of blank at 0.012 ng/mL, and functional sensitivity at 0.019 ng/mL with a CV of 20%, and 0.058 ng/mL with a CV of 10%. Total precision of any sample type ranged from 2.62%~5.67%. The assay was linear over the studied range of 0.01-50.00 ng/mL, and no hook effect was found when cTnI concentrations reached 1900 ng/mL. No significant interference was noted with the potential endogenous interfering substances. Compared with the commercial kit (Abbott assay kit), the correlation coefficient was 0.9859. A washing-free CLIA was established for the rapid detection of cTnI in human whole blood, using erythrocyte capture antibodies-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for eliminating the influence of erythrocytes and PCMS for signal amplification, which showed great potential in clinical application.
  • Longmei Li, Jin Zhang, Wenjing Sun, Weimin Gong, Changlin Tian, Pan Shi, Chaowei Shi
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 747-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.042
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    Current resolved structures of GPCRs and G protein complexes provided important insights into G protein activation. However, the binding or dissociation of GPCRs with G protein is instantaneous and highly dynamic in the intracellular environment. The conformational dynamic of G protein still needs to be addressed. In this study, we applied 19F solution NMR spectroscopy to monitor the conformational changes of G protein upon interact with detergent mimicking membrane and receptor. Our results show that there are two states equilibria in the Gα in apo states. The interaction of Gα with detergents will accelerate this conformational transformation and induce a state that tends to bind to GPCRs. Finally, the Gα proteins presented a fully activation state when they coupled to GPCRs.
  • Zhihong Wei, Boyang Wang, Mingcai Xie, Daocheng Hong, Xin Yang, Sushu Wan, Weiqing Yang, Siyu Lu, Yuxi Tian
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 751-756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.014
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    Carbon dots (CDs), because of their unique properties, are being rapidly developed as important luminescent materials for imaging, sensing, and use in photonic devices. However, most of the reported fundamental properties of the CDs are results of investigations conducted in the solution state, which may be completely different from those conducted in the solid state. In this work, we study the luminescence properties, photostability, and the dynamics of CDs in different matrix environments, from ensemble to the single-particle level. We observed that the properties associated with the emission centers and photostability of CDs were extremely sensitive to the local chemical environment. A better understanding of the dependence of the spectroscopic properties of CDs on the complex local chemical environment is an important step toward finding new ways of controlling the optical properties of CDs and optimizing their use in various applications.
  • Chenghui Zhang, Pengjuan Ni, Bo Wang, Wendong Liu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Chuanxia Chen, Jian Sun, Yizhong Lu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 757-761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.017
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    The undesirable enzymatic activity of nanozymes under near neutral pH condition and the traditional single signal output always restrict the analytical application of nanozyme-based biosensors. Herein, graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets supported palladium nanosheets composite (Pd/g-C3N4) with both oxidase-like activity and fluorescent property is synthesized. Notably, Pd/g-C3N4 exhibits enhanced oxidase-like activity compared to Pd NSs under pH 7.4. By combining Pd/g-C3N4 with o-phenylenediamine (OPD), a ratiometric fluorescence assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity detection is developed. Pd/g-C3N4 can catalyze oxidation of nonfluorescent OPD to fluorescent oxidized OPD (oxOPD, Em = 565 nm), which can quench fluorescence of g-C3N4 supporter (Em = 441 nm) through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). However, in presence of AChE, acetylthiocholine can be hydrolyzed into thiocholine, which will block the oxidase-like activity of Pd/g-C3N4 and then hamper the FRET process. This ratiometric fluorescence assay is also viable to screen AChE inhibitor. This work will guide design of ratiometric fluorescence assay based on nanozymes with improved enzymatic activity.
  • Maoju Chang, Chenxu Yan, Lei Shi, Dan Li, Wei Fu, Zhiqian Guo
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 762-766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.015
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    Cysteine is well-known to be an important biothiol and related to many diseases. However, the in vivo detection of endogenous cysteine still suffers from lacking small-molecule fluorophores with both excitation and emission in the near-infrared (650-900 nm)/shortwave-infrared region. Herein, we report a molecular engineering strategy for shortwave infrared (SWIR, 900-1700 nm) sensing of cysteine, which integrated an excited-state intermolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) building block into the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) scaffold. The obtained novel fluorophore SH-OH displays a maximum absorption at the NIR region, and emission at the SWIR region. We introduce the cysteine-recognition moiety to SH-OH structure, and demonstrate sensing of endogenous cysteine in living animals, using the SWIR emission as a reliable off-on fluorescence signal. This fluorophore design strategy of cooperation of ICT and ESIPT processes expands the in vivo sensing toolbox for accurate analysis in clinical applications.
  • Jianhua Yan, Yixuan Zhang, Lijuan Zheng, Yuwei Wu, Ting Wang, Ting Jiang, Xiaoqin Liu, Dongming Peng, Yanfei Liu, Zhenbao Liu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 767-772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.018
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    The drug resistance of chemotherapy is a major challenge to overcome for antineoplastic agents and the reverse of drug resistant is essential for cancer therapy. Herein, we developed a drug delivery system which can simultaneously detect/reverse the drug resistance and perform synergetic treatment of cancer. In this work, we integrated cyanine5 (Cy5) modified miRNA (let-7i) (Cy5-miRNA) and platinum onto nano-graphene oxide (NGO) (30-50 nm) platform to achieve simultaneously detection/reversion of drug resistance and synergetic treatment of cisplatin resistant SKOV3 cells (SKOV3DDP cells). The Cy5-miRNA adsorbed on NGO could selectively bind the drug resistance related mRNA follow by suppress the expression of drug resistance mRNA, and the binding simultaneously induced the release of Cy5-miRNA from the NGO, thus the fluorescence signal of Cy5 recovered and could be used for drug resistance monitoring. Moreover, the miRNA suppressed the Cyclin D1 protein expressions thus reversed the drug resistance. The loaded platinum(IV) (Pt(IV)) was converted to the therapeutic platinum(II) (Pt(II)) in both tumor acidic and reductive environment responsive behavior. NGO furtherly performed photothermal therapy under near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation and enhanced the therapeutic effect. All in all, this nanoplatform realized detection/reversion of the drug resistance as well as synergetic chemical-photothermal treatment of ovarian cancer cells, which holds great promise in the treatment of drug resistant cancer cells.
  • Jiaqi Deng, Jingyuan Xu, Minzhi Ouyang, Zhen Zou, Yanli Lei, Junbin Li, Zhihe Qing, Ronghua Yang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 773-777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.046
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    The development of amplification strategies is one of the central challenges for detection of low-abundance targets. One-to-many (1:M) amplification strategies in which one target lights many signal probes, has improved the detection sensitivity in bulk solution, but with discounted contrast in cell imaging, because the lighted probes are dissociative and dispersible. In this work, a one-to-large (1:L) signaling mechanism, in which the lighted probes were orderly connected to each other, was conceptually proposed to enhance the contrast in cell imaging by avoiding signal dispersion in amplification. Accordingly, target-triggered hairpin-free chain-branching assembly (HFCBA) holds great potential to implement the 1:L mechanism, but using it in cell imaging has yet to be demonstrated. As a proof of concept, a group of probes were first programmed to implement miRNA-21-triggered HFCBA. After transfection of probes, gradually-growing signal flares in cells were monitored along with the growth of DNA dendrimers; and the in situ fluorescence accumulation in HFCBA resulted in highly-enhanced contrast to the surrounding by avoiding signal dispersion in amplification. The contrast-enhanced imaging with signal amplification is significant for biological analysis and molecular medicine. We expect the 1:L mechanism will provide a new thought for high-performance imaging of biomarkers in cells.
  • Guangyue Zou, Shuai Chen, Nazhen Liu, Yongliang Yu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 778-782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.076
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    Lysosomal polarity is considered a key indicator of lysosomal function due to its significant impact on membrane fluidity and enzymatic reactions in lysosomes. Monitoring lysosomal polarity can gain insight into the related physiological and pathological processes and develop new diagnostic methods. However, current fluorescent probes with lysosomal polarity response suffer from narrow linear range, photobleaching and complicated preparation. Herein, a ratiometric fluorescent probe (r-bCDs) for intracellular lysosomal polarity imaging is designed and constructed by amide bond assembly of polarity-sensitive red fluorescent carbon dots (rCDs) and referenced blue fluorescent carbon dots (bCDs). r-bCDs show a much wider linear range of polarity response (orientation polarizability Δf from 0.020 to 0.315) than other probes, and the interference of uneven distribution and instrument factors can be effectively eliminated by ratiometric fluorescent sensing. Imaging of intracellular lysosomal polarity with r-bCDs is implemented to observe the polarity variation caused by the change of cell state and the difference between cancer cells and normal cells. This work provides a promising tool for studying the related physiological and pathological processes and developing new diagnostic methods.
  • Yingxiang Zhai, Ping Wang, Xinyue Zhang, Shouxin Liu, Jian Li, Zhijun Chen, Shujun Li
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 783-787. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.075
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    Room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) is important in both organic electronics and encryption. Despite rapid advances, a universal approach to robust and tunable RTP materials based on amorphous polymers remains a formidable challenge. Here, we present a strategy that uses three-dimensional (3D) confinement of carbon dots in a polymer network to achieve ultra-long lifetime phosphorescence. The RTP of the as-obtained materials was not quenched in different polar organic solvents and the lifetime of the RTP was easily tuned by adjusting the amount of crosslinking or varying the drying temperature of the 3D molecular network. As a demonstration of potential application, as-obtained RTP materials were successfully used to prepare RTP fibres for flexible textiles. As well as bringing to light a fundamental principle for the construction of polymer materials with RTP, we have endowed traditional carbon dots and polymers with fresh features that will expand potential applications.
  • Juanjuan Li, Hongjie Luo, Xueqiong Zhu, Jianfu Zhao, Tianfeng Chen
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 788-792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.088
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    Exploiting a tissue diagnosis method to abstain the involuted operating and consume valuable reagents while realizing high-speed and inexpensive pathological grading technology to supply a better scheme for cancer therapy is a significant method of cancers detection. A promising immuno-fluorescence strategy was rationally designed and synthesized by loading ruthenium complex into cervical cancer-targeted DNA-cage, which was well used to realize high-speed and inexpensive diagnosis of clinical cervical cancer tumor tissues avoiding the traditional multi-stage process, thus demonstrating high application potential in clinical pathological grading and surgical judgment. Moreover, it has been finding that Apts-DNA@Ru can enrichment in the tumor region, interestingly, no enrichment in normal cervical cancer tissue. It has the potential to realize the integration of in vivo diagnose and further synchronous treatment in the near future. Thence, this study demonstrates a strategy for integration of cancer-targeted DNA-cage and fluorescent RuPOP as alternative IHC reagents for next-generation more rapid convenient cancer detection.
  • Kaiye Wang, Yanan Xiang, Wei Pan, Hongyu Wang, Na Li, Bo Tang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 793-797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.087
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    Developing selectively targeted photothermal agents to reduce side effects in photothermal therapy remains a great challenge. Inspired by the key role of endoplasmic reticulum in the protein synthesis and intracellular signal transduction, particularly for the immunogenic cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, we developed an endoplasmic reticulum-targeted organic photothermal agent (Ts-PT-RGD) for enhancing photothermal therapy of tumor. The photothermal agent was covalently attached with 4-methylbenzenesulfonamide and cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) peptide for realizing the targeting of endoplasmic reticulum and tumor cell. Owing to its amphiphilic properties, it readily self-assembles in water to form nanoparticles. The photothermal agent possesses excellent photophysical properties and biological compatibility. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that it can actively target endoplasmic reticulum and effectively ablate tumor with near-infrared laser.
  • Wenbo Zhao, Yong Wang, Kaikai Liu, Rui Zhou, Chongxin Shan
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 798-802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.084
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    Biomass-based carbon nanodots (CNDs) are becoming promising fluorescent materials due to their superior optical properties and excellent biocompatibility. However, most fluorescent CNDs are prepared under high temperatures with artificial chemicals as precursors. In this work, multicolor biomass-based CNDs have been prepared by employing natural biomass as precursors through an ultrasonic-assisted method at room temperature. The multicolor biomass-based CNDs can be prepared within 10 min, and cavitation produced by ultrasound in solution contributes to the polymerization of biomolecules into nanodots. The emission of the CNDs covers from blue to red region, with emission peaks centered at 410 nm, 520 nm and 670 nm, and the corresponding photoluminescence quantum yields of the CNDs are 11%, 12% and 28%, respectively. Furthermore, bacterial imaging by using the biomass-based CNDs as fluorescent imaging agent has been demonstrated. This work provides a convenient ultrasonic-assisted way for fabrication multicolor and eco-friendly biomass CNDs, demonstrating their application in bacterial imaging.
  • Yanchun Shi, Chen Gao, Enhui Xing, Jimei Zhang, Feng Duan, He Zhao, Yongbing Xie
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 803-806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.086
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    Meso-Ni@HZSM-5 bi-functional catalysts were successfully post-encapsulated with about 3-7 nm Ni nanoparticles within HZSM-5 crystals, which exhibited significantly efficient conversion activity (67.4 g[palmitic acid] g[Ni]-1 h-1) of palmitic acid and 100% selectivity of hydrocarbons with the outstanding stability during recycling application, compared to the impregnated Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst (14.0 g[palmitic acid] g[Ni]-1 h-1).
  • Yan Liu, Rui Lv, Shiyong Sun, Daoyong Tan, Faqin Dong, Yevgeny A. Golubev, Xiaoqin Nie, Olga B. Kotova, Jin Liu, Ke Wang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 807-811. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.087
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    Various enzymatic reactions or enzymatic cascade reactions occur efficiently in biological microsystems due to space constraints or orderly transfer of intermediate products. Inspired by this, the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-like nanozyme (Fe-aminoclay) was in situ synthesized on the surface of alkali-activated halloysite nanotubes and the natural enzyme (glucose oxidase, GOx) was immobilized on it to construct a high-efficiency GOx-FeAC@AHNTs cascade nanoreactor. In which, FeAC@AHNTs can not only be used as a carrier for immobilized enzymes, but also help its catalytic activity to cooperate with glucose oxidase in a cascade reaction. The microcompartments and substrate channel effect of this enzyme-nanozyme microsystem exhibit a superior catalytic performance than that of natural enzyme system, and exhibits excellent long-term stability and recyclability. Subsequently, the GOx-FeAC@AHNTs cascade nanoreactor was employed as a glucose colorimetric platform, which displayed a low detection limit (0.47 μmol/L) in glucose detection. This enzyme-nanoenzyme nanoreactor provides a simple and effective example for constructing a multi-enzyme system with limited space, and lays the foundation for subsequent research in the fields of biological analysis and catalysis.
  • Binbin Jin, Xin Ye, Heng Zhong, Fangming Jin, Yun Hang Hu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 812-816. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.046
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    Light-driven conversion of CO2 into chemicals/fuels is a desirable approach for achieving carbon neutrality using clean and sustainable energy. However, its scale-up application is restricted due to insufficient efficiency. Herein, we present a photothermal catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 into CH4 over Ru/black TiO2 catalysts, aiming to achieve the synergistic use of light and heat in solar energy during CO2 conversion. Owing to the desirable spectral response ability and photothermal conversion performance of black TiO2, an efficient combination of photocatalysis and thermocatalysis has been established. The CO2 hydrogenation was significantly accelerated because of the increased catalyst surface temperature enabled by the photothermal effect of black TiO2. Simultaneously, through the in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) observation, electron-rich Ru nanoparticles was achieved based on the photo-induced excitation, thereby providing more negative hydride to improve nucleophilic attack to the CO2, obtaining the CH4 yield of 93.8%.
  • Xiaolei Zhu, Yangen Huang, Xiuhua Xu, Fengling Qing
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 817-820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.030
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    An iron-catalyzed coupling reaction of difluoroenol silyl ethers and cyclobutanone oxime esters is described. This protocol provides a convenient access to various previously unknown and potentially useful gem-difluoromethylenated ketonitriles inmoderate to good yields. The transformations of resulting products to other fluorinecontaining products is also documented.
  • Jianxi Ying, Ruiwen Ding, Yumeng Zhang, Bowen Han, Yeting Guo, Ning Wang, Dandan Guo, Yile Wu, Junwei Huang, Yan Liu, Feng Ni, Shaohua Huang, Yufen Zhao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 821-824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.031
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    Life on Earth uses a common set of l-amino acids (l-aa) to construct proteins and d-nucleosides (d-Nu) to form nucleic acids, which serve as the carrier of genetic information. Herein, we reveal the intrinsic mechanism of chiral selection of l-aa and d-Nu from the perspective of chemical origin of life. This work employed 15N-labeled l-aa and performed one-pot synthesis of nucleotide amidate of amino acid (N-aa-NMP) using equal amounts of l-15N-aa and d-14N-aa with d-/l-Nu in the aqueous solution of trimetaphosphate, generating l-15N-aa-NMP and d-14N-aa-NMP, respectively. The 31P-NMR data indicated that l-aa was preferentially selected during the formation of N-aa-NMP in the presence of d-Nu. Surprisingly, d-aa was preferred over l-aa in the presence of l-Nu. Further analysis revealed that l-15N-aa-d-NMP vs. d-14N-aa-l-NMP and d-14N-aa-d-NMP vs. l-15N-aa-l-NMP were mirror isomers of each other, respectively. These data suggest that there could be a set of chiral systems opposite to that on Earth, which infers there might be a world of life that is a mirror image of the Earth.
  • Zhen Lu, Bogeng Guo, Yulai Zhao, Linxi Hou, Longqiang Xiao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 825-829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.033
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    The synthesis of cyclic polymer is an important topic in polymer chemistry. Herein, we report a one-step method to prepare cyclic polypyrazoles. Monomers with two functional groups, diazo and alkyne, were synthesized and polymerized via 1,3-diploar cycloaddition in bulk under heating without any catalyst. Polypyrazoles with molecular weights in the range of 3800-4400 g/mol and yields in the range of 78.8-98.7% were successfully synthesized. No chain end group was detected by LC-QTOF-MS and FTIR, which proves the cyclic structure of polypyrazoles. What is noteworthy is that the cyclic polypyrazoles can self-assemble into vesicles during the reprecipitation process, which was proved by the results of SEM and TEM. The reason for that is the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bond between NH and ester groups.
  • Peng Gao, Miaolin Ke, Tong Ru, Guanfeng Liang, Fen-Er Chen
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 830-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.068
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    This work detailed the preparation of a class of water-soluble PNP ligands that differed by the nature of the substitute on phenyl ring of ligands. These ligands were incorporated into water-soluble rhodium-PNP complex catalysts that were used to regioselective hydroformylation of a series of terminal arylalkenes, providing efficient access to rac-α-aryl propionaldehydes in good to excellent yield (up to 97%) and branched-regioselectivity (up to 40:1 b/l ratio). Furthermore, gram-scale and diverse synthetic transformation demonstrated synthetic application of this methodology for non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
  • Ning Sun, Han Gao, Lili Sun, Jingxi An, Man Xu, Chen Sun, Yamin Han, Jinyi Lin, Jiangli Cai, Mingjian Ni, Liangliang He, Jinghao Yang, Zhoulu Wang, Lubing Bai, Xinwen Zhang, Qi Wei, Xuehua Ding, Chengrong Yin, Linghai Xie, Wei Huang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 835-841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.069
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    Film morphology of emissive layers is crucial to the performance and stability of solution-processable organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Compared to the interpenetration of conjugated polymer chain, small molecular emitter with a flexible side chain always presents easily aggregation upon external treatment, and caused π-electronic coupling, which is undesirable for the efficiency and stability of deep-blue OLEDs. Herein, we proposed a side-chain coupling strategy to enhance the film morphological an emission stability of solution-processable small molecular deep-blue emitter. In contrary to "parent" MC8TPA, the crosslinkable styryl and vinyl units were introduced as ended unit at the side-chain of CmTPA and OEYTPA. Interestingly, CmTPA and OEYTPA films present a relatively stable morphology and uniform deep-blue emission after thermal annealing (160 ℃) in the atmosphere, different to the discontinuous MC8TPA annealed film. Besides, compared to the CmTPA and OEYTPA ones, serious polaron formation in the MC8TPA annealed film also negative to the deep-blue emission, according to transient absorption analysis. Therefore, both CmTPA and OEYTPA annealed film obtained at 140 ℃ present an excellent deep-blue ASE behavior with a 445 nm, but absence for MC8TPA ones, associated with the disruption of annealed films. Finally, enhancement of device performance based on CmTPA and OEYTPA film (~40%) after thermal annealing with a similar performance curves also confirmed the assumption above. Therefore, these results also supported the effectiveness of our side-chain coupling strategy for optoelectronic applications.
  • Min Wu, Hui Gao, Huiying Xu, Wei Yi, Zhi Zhou
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 842-846. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.004
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    The CpXRh(III)-catalyzed asymmetric cascade C-H coupling/intramolecular cyclization of azomethine imines with propargyl carbonates has been developed, affording a variety of chiral tetracyclic indenopyrazolopyrazolone frameworks with good substrate/functional group tolerance and enantioselectivity (up to 97:3 er). Combined experimental studies and DFT calculations revealed the Rh(III)-catalyzed stepwise annulation process and clarified the synergy coordination mode of dual directing groups in tuning the selectivity.
  • Xu Xu, Guanyu Zhou, Guodong Ju, Dongjie Wang, Bao Li, Yingsheng Zhao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 847-850. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.070
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    Here, a rhodium(III)-catalyzed benzo[c]azepine-1,3(2H)-dione synthesis via tandem C-H alkylation and intramolecular amination of N-methoxylbenzamide with 3-bromo-3,3-difluoropropene as the alkylation agent is reported. The substituted benzamides and protected indoles are all tolerated, yielding the corresponding products in moderate to good yields. Further study revealed those bioactive compounds such as piperic acid and a key precursor of Roflumilast all perform well, highlighting the synthetic utility of this method.
  • De-Ao Xu, Qing-Yang Zhou, Xianyin Dai, Xin-Kun Ma, Ying-Ming Zhang, Xiufang Xu, Yu Liu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 851-854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.001
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    A phosphorescent supramolecular foldamer is conveniently constructed by the 1:1 host-guest complexation with cucurbit[8]uril and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-bridged 4-(4-bromophenyl)-pyridinium salt. The tightly compact host-guest complexation in molecular foldamer can greatly suppress the fluorescence emissive channel and promote the intersystem crossing from singlet to triplet states, thus leading to the green phosphorescence at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. More intriguingly, the phosphorescence emission shows very rapid and sensitive responsiveness to different antibiotics in both inanimate milieu and living cells. Remarkably, the limit of detection of such binary inclusion complex toward sulfamethazine can reach as low as 1.86×10-7 mol/L. Thus, it is envisaged that this supramolecular nanoplatform featuring unique complexation-enhanced phosphorescence emission may hold great promise in sensing and detecting many other biological targets under physiological environment.
  • Yanhui Guo, Yunyun Liu, Jie-Ping Wan
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 855-858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.003
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    The selective synthesis of N2-sulfonyl and N2-H 1,2,3-triazoles via organocatalytic annulation of enaminone/enaminoester with sulfonyl azide has been realized. The unconventional selectivity providing N2-sulfoyl 1,2,3-triazoles takes place in pure water, wherein the hydrogen bond effect between water and the intermediate resulting from enamine-azide corporation accounts for the novel reaction selectivity. On the other hand, the reactions conducted in DMSO specifically afford N2-H 1,2,3-triazoles in the absence of such hydrogen bond effect.
  • Qiang Wang, Hongjian Song, Qingmin Wang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 859-862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.005
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    The biological activities of a series of 3,3'-spirocyclic indole derivatives containing CF2, phosphine oxide, indole, and cyano functional groups were evaluated, and these derivatives were found to exhibit anti-TMV, fungicidal, and insecticidal activities.
  • Shi-Jing Zhai, Dominique Cahard, Fa-Guang Zhang, Jun-An Ma
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 863-866. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.007
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    Three bench-stable difluoromethylene phosphonate hydrazones were prepared from simple diethyl(difluoromethyl)phosphonate within two steps in good yields. The [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of these diazo precursors with aryl diazonium salts has been accomplished under metal-free conditions with exclusive regioselectivity. This transformation provides practical access to a broad panel of 2-aryl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl difluoromethylene phosphonates, including the corresponding derivatives of amino acid (phenylalanine) and drug cores (Pomalidomide and Lapatinib fragment).
  • Zhiheng Li, Danran Li, Huaming Xiang, Jian Huang, Yinuo Zheng, Cuiju Zhu, Xiuling Cui, Chao Pi, Hao Xu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 867-870. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.009
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    Anthrones are key structural motifs in many natural products, bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical chemicals. Earth-abundant-metal-catalyzed asymmetric functionalization of anthrones has not proved to be viable. Herein, we disclosed a highly enantioselective propargylic substitution of anthrones with propargylic esters using copper salts with chiral N, N, P-ligand. This strategy is amenable to a broad range of substrates, uses readily available starting materials, provides excellent yields with remarkable enantioselectivity under mild conditions, and enables attractive products diversification routes.
  • Ping Li, Yi Liu, Ziang Wang, Xuemei Xiao, Guozhe Meng, Xiaolin Wang, Hong-Lei Guo, Hui Guo
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 871-876. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.010
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    Nature consists of various soft tissues with well-ordered hierarchical anisotropic structures, which play essential roles in biological systems to exhibit particular functions. Mimicking bio-tissues, synthetic hydrogels with anisotropic structures have received considerable attention in recent years. However, existing approaches to fabricate anisotropic hydrogels often require complicated procedures, which are time-consuming and labor-demanding. Inspired by the dry-induced crystallization phenomenon, we report a simple yet effective prestretching-drying-swelling method to afford anisotropic crystalline polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels. Owing to the distinct anisotropic microstructure, the hydrogels demonstrate excellent mechanical properties with noticeable directional distinction. It is revealed that both the enhancing of pre-orientation strain and the extending of heating time make the hydrogels with better mechanical properties and more remarkable anisotropicity. Owing to the anisotropically aligned structure, the hydrogels exhibit remarkably differential ionic conductivity: the difference between the parallel and vertical conductivity of the same sample can reach as high as 6.6 times, making the materials possible candidates as nano-conductive materials. We anticipate that this simple yet effective approach may become highly useful for fabricating oriented hydrogels and endow the materials with more promising application prospects in the future.
  • Chunhui Li, Xiuqin Li, Qiaochun Wang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 877-880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.011
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    The preparation of amorphous pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence materials with high efficiency is still a challenging task. Herein, we introduce a CB[6] derivative-based supramolecular self-assembling strategy. A water soluble and ellipsoidal deformed CB[6] derivative is used to self-assemble with 4-(4-bromophenyl)-1-methylpyridin-1-ium chloride, bromide and hexafluorophosphate in water. After freeze-drying, the obtained amorphous complexes exhibit brilliant green phosphorescence emission under ambient conditions, with phosphorescence efficiency up to 59%, 60% and 72%, respectively. This is the first report of amorphous non-polymeric pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence with such a high efficiency. In view of the dynamic self-assembling property, the complexes are responsive to water, which could enable information encryption.
  • Siyang Jiang, Weipeng Mao, Dake Mao, Zhan-Ting Li, Da Ma
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 881-884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.021
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    We report supramolecular AND logic gates based on host-guest complexation between acid-labile acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) molecular container and NaClO-responsive dye. Supramolecular AND logic gate is turned on due to acid-triggered degradation of molecular container and the release of the dye, followed by NaClO-induced fluorescence "switch on" effect of the dye. The reason for AND molecular logic gate is discovered to be the combination of oxidation inhibition and fluorescence "switch off" effect. Supramolecular AND logic gate is confirmed to be operational in live MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cells.
  • Anquan Zheng, Tingting Zhou, Sasa Wang, Wenge Zhang, Xiuxiang Lu, Huiyu Chen, Haibo Tan
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 885-889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.035
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    A bioinspired acid-triggered hemiacetalization/dehydration/[3 + 3]-type cycloaddition cascade process was disclosed, diastereoselectively furnishing furo[2,3-b]chromene skeleton under mild conditions. The viability of this approach was demonstrated by syntheses of a series of furo[2,3-b]chromene and pyrano[2,3-b]chromene derivatives. The successful total syntheses of two lignan-phloroglucinol hybrids, hyperaspidinols A and B, exemplified the synthetic utility of our biomimetic methodology.
  • Biao Deng, Jie Liang, Luchao Yue, Tingshuai Li, Qian Liu, Yang Liu, Shuyan Gao, Abdulmohsen Ali Alshehri, Khalid Ahmed Alzahrani, Yonglan Luo, Xuping Sun
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 890-892. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.10.002
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    Developing non-noble-metal oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts with high performance is critical to electrocatalytic water splitting. In this work, we fabricated CoFe-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanowire arrays on graphite felt (CoFe-LDH/GF) via a hydrothermal method. The CoFe-LDH/GF, as a robust integrated 3D OER anode, exhibits excellent catalytic activity with the need of low overpotential of 252 and 285 mV to drive current densities of 10 and 100 mA/cm2 in 1.0 mol/L KOH, respectively. In addition, it also maintains electrochemical durability for at least 24 h. This work would open up avenues for the development of GF like attractive catalyst supports for oxygen evolution applications.
  • Zhen Chen, Ce Bian, Chi Fan, Tao Li
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 893-897. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.071
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    Si coordination structures have been proven to greatly influence the ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) catalytic properties and the hydrothermal stability of Cu-based silicoaluminophosphate-form catalysts. However, the role of various Si coordination structures in the NH3-SCR reaction over Cu-SAPO-34 catalyst remains unknown. Herein, a batch of Cu-SAPO-34 samples with various Si contents was synthesized via a one-pot method to study the role of Si coordination structures in the NH3-SCR catalytic properties and hydrothermal stability. Cu/34-2 with the highest proportion of Si(xOAl) (x = 1~3) structures exhibits remarkable durability with 90% NO reduction efficiency within 200~450 ℃ even after a hydrothermal aging treatment at 850 ℃. In contrast, Cu/34-1 and Cu/34-4 with the highest proportions of Si(4OAl) and Si(0OAl) structures, respectively, are significantly deactivated by the same hydrothermal treatment. To better understand this phenomenon, the relationship between the Si coordination structures and SCR performance is established using characterization techniques and kinetics measurements. Results reveal that a high content of Si(4OAl) and Si(0OAl) is detrimental to the hydrothermal stability of Cu-SAPO-34 catalyst. However, Si(xOAl) (x = 1~3) structures are conducive to the stabilization of isolated Cu2+, thus enhancing the stability to severe hydrothermal treatment.
  • Bo Tang, Wei Wang, Huipeng Hou, Yiquan Liu, Zongkun Liu, Lina Geng, Liquan Sun, Aiqin Luo
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 898-902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.089
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    Chiral covalent organic frameworks (CCOFs) featuring chirality, stability, and good porosity have attracted a considerable amount of attention due to their important applications, such as asymmetric catalysis, chiral separation, and chiral recognition. In this study, a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) covalent organic framework (β-CD-COF) diluted with polysiloxane OV-1701 was explored as a novel chiral stationary phase (CSP) for gas chromatography (GC) separation of racemates. The β-CD-COF coated capillary column had excellent selectivity, not only for the separation of linear alkanes, linear alcohols, fatty acid methyl esters mixture, the Grob mixture and positional isomers, but also for the resolution of chiral compounds, including chiral alcohols, aldehydes, ethers, and amino acid derivatives. In addition, the β-CD-COF-coated capillary column presented good repeatability and reproducibility. This work indicated the great potential of the CCOFs coated capillary column for the chromatographic separation of enantiomers.
  • Xiaowan Zhang, Yixin Yang, Peige Qin, Lizhen Han, Wenli Zhu, Shaofeng Duan, Minghua Lu, Zongwei Cai
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 903-906. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.003
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    In this work, the nano-g-C3N4/UiO-66-NH2 composite was prepared by one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurement, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. By using nano-g-C3N4/UiO-66-NH2 composite as sorbent, a dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed to sensitive analysis of food colorants including tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, allura red and bright blue. The experiment parameters including the amount of sorbent, adsorption time, the pH of adsorption solution, desorption time, desorption solvent, the pH of desorption solution as well as the proportion between desorption solvent and buffer solvent were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) were determined in the ranges of 0.08-0.8 and 0.2-2.0 ng/mL, respectively. With the developed sample pretreatment method, carmine and brilliant blue were determined from blueberry juice by HPLC-DAD. The contents were calculated as 1.53 μg/mL and 0.17 μg/mL, respectively.
  • Pinghua Chen, Huitao Zheng, Hualin Jiang, Jun Liu, Xinman Tu, Weibo Zhang, Bailey Phillips, Lei Fang, Jian-Ping Zou
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 907-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.002
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    To address the challenge of treating complex pollutants containing heavy metals and organic compounds, a phenanthroline/TiO2 nanocomposite with rich oxygen vacancy defects was synthesized to integrate the functions of pollutant detection, adsorption, and photocatalytic degradation. The results showed that the nanocomposite could adsorb Cr3+ and the process could be transduced into a colorimetric signal for qualitative and quantitative detection. The adsorbed heavy metal also exhibited a synergistically enhanced photocatalytic degradation of a model organic pollutant under visible light. The simultaneous adsorption, detection, and photocatalysis could reduce the multifarious operations and high cost of traditional environmental remediation methods, indicating a strong application potential for the nanocomposite.
  • Hong Du, Xiuyun Ma, Miao Jiang, Z. Conrad Zhang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 912-915. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.082
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    The biomass valorization is of great importance as an alternative for the production of transport fuels and fine chemicals. Furfural hydrogenation to furfuryl alcohol is a prevailing industrial route for the utilization of hemicellulose component of biomass. The toxicity of the chromium species in commercial copper chromite catalyst for furfuryl alcohol production motivates the development of efficient chromium-free catalyst. Thus, a highly efficient silica supported copper catalyst is developed in this study. The catalyst is prepared by freeze drying of a gel precursor that is synthesized by ammonia evaporation, followed by calcination and H2 reduction. The catalyst exhibits higher furfural hydrogenation activity than oven dried catalyst, commercial copper chromite catalyst and a plant supplied commercial silica supported copper catalyst. The catalyst also shows good stability. The superior performance of the freeze dried catalyst has resulted from its developed pore structure and higher amount of Cu0 as well as Cu+ active sites.
  • Chang Shu, Teng-Fei Li, Duo Li, Zhong-Qiu Li, Xing-Hua Xia
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 916-919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.009
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    Pomalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent (IMiD) that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical treatment of patients with multiple myeloma. In this work, we developed a sensitive and validated LC-MS/MS method for high-throughput determination of pomalidomide over the range of 1.006-100.6 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9991) in human plasma and pharmacokinetic studies. A liquid-liquid extraction method using ethyl acetate was applied to extract pomalidomide and afatinib (as an internal standard, IS) from human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hedera ODS column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm) with security guard C18 column (4 mm×2.0 mm) at 40 ℃. Methanol and 10 mmol/L aqueous solution of ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid were used as a gradient elution mobile phase, and the flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. A triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometer using multiplex reaction monitoring mode (MRM) with electrospray ionization (ESI) positive ionization was employed. The precursor to product ion transitions for the quantitative analysis of pomalidomide and the IS were m/z 274.2→163.1 and m/z 486.1 → 371.1, respectively. This established method has been validated according to regulatory guideline, and the results were all within the acceptance criteria. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to analyze samples obtained from clinical pharmacokinetics study after oral administration of pomalidomide (4 mg) capsules in human.
  • Ziliang Wei, Haolin Xu, Zhenchao Lei, Xiaoyun Yi, Chunhua Feng, Zhi Dang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 920-925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.006
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    The electro-Fenton process, with its capacity for in-situ H2O2 formation and Fe2+ regeneration, is a striking alternative to the traditional chemical-Fenton process. However, the frequent requirement of extra binders for electrode fabrication leads to low catalyst utilization, a complex fabrication process, and weak conductivity. Herein, a three-dimensional (3D) porous electrode was fabricated in-situ on a Ni foam (NF) substrate integrated with nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N@C) derived from carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) without any binder. The resulting 900/N@C-NF cathode (synthesized at 900 ℃) was high in surface area, N content, and degree of graphitization, achieved high performance of H2O2 production (2.58 mg L-1 h-1 H2O2/mg catalyst) at -0.7 V (vs. SCE), and enabled prompt regeneration of Fe2+. The electro-Fenton system equipped with the 900/N@C-NF cathode was effective in removing a diverse range of organic pollutants, including rhodamine B (RhB), phenol, bisphenol A (BPA), nitrobenzene (NB), and Cu-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and significantly attenuating the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the real acid wastewater, exhibiting superior activity and stability. This binder-free and self-supporting electro-Fenton cathode was thus shown to be an attractive candidate for application to wastewater treatment, particularly those rich in organics, acids, and Fe3+/Fe2+.
  • Kai Wu, Liang Mao, Xiuquan Gu, Xiaoyan Cai, Yulong Zhao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 926-929. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.011
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    In this work, hierarchical NiS@ZnIn2S4 heterostructure was developed by constructing ultra-thin ZnIn2S4 (ZIS) nanosheets on hollow NiS nanospheres for hydrogen production from photocatalytic water splitting. The NiS@ZIS displayed a strong optical absorption ability in the visible region and a high specific surface area of 33.14 m2/g. The Type-I band alignment in NiS@ZIS heterostructure was determined by the combination of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky curves. The photocatalytic hydrogen production of NiS@ZIS (1.24 mmol g-1 h-1) was nearly 5.6 times higher than that of ZIS under visible light, in the absence of any co-catalyst and sacrificial agent. The separation and migration of charge in NiS@ZIS were characterized by a series of spectroscopy and photo/electrochemical tests, which verified the efficient charge transfer from ZIS to NiS.
  • Cong Lyu, Lu Zhang, Dan He, Boyuan Su, Ying Lyu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 930-934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.012
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    As an antibiotic, sulfadiazine has posed a serious threat to humans and ecosystems due to its chronic toxicity. The advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) via heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) have significant potential for the degradation of antibiotics. However, there are multiple restrictions including non-specifically binding to target contaminants, which would deplete oxidation capacity, and lacking energy effectiveness due to inefficient utilization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To overcome these obstacles, we adopted the "bait-hook & destroy" strategy in this study. Herein, we synthesized a novel micrometer-sized NiOOH hierarchical spheres assembled from nanosheets, which have relatively large specific surface areas and yield specified cavities to "bait-hook" sulfadiazine and PMS onto the surface cavities. This process was further conductive to effective generation of ROS and subsequently "destruction" of sulfadiazine with elevated mass transformation rate. 20.4% of sulfadiazine can adsorb to NiOOH surface in less than 30 min (0.0051 min-1), and then sulfadiazine was completely degraded in 90 min intervals in the NiOOH/PMS system. The degradation rate constant (k = 0.0537 min-1) was about 5.3, 2.5 and 2.2 times higher than that in Ni2O3/PMS, NiO/PMS and Ni(OH)2/PMS system, respectively. This was ascribed to the synergistic catalytic oxidation and adsorption process occurred on the surface of NiOOH. Appreciably, there were both non-radicals (1O2) and radicals (O2·- and SO4·-) involved in the NiOOH/PMS system, and 1O2 was distinguished as the dominated ROS for degradation of sulfadiazine. This study provides a novel strategy via synergistic adsorption and catalytic oxidation, and indicates that the micrometer-sized NiOOH hierarchical sphere as heterogeneous catalyst is an attractive candidate for potential application of the SR-AOPs technology in water treatment.
  • Wang Song, Jiawei Ji, Kai Guo, Xin Wang, Xiaoqian Wei, Yandi Cai, Wei Tan, Lulu Li, Jingfang Sun, Changjin Tang, Lin Dong
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 935-938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.022
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    CeO2/TiO2 (denoted as CeTi) catalysts obtained by solid-phase impregnation behaved better in low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (NH3-SCR) than that by conventional wet impregnation. To explore the main factors for activity distinction, the texture property, CeO2 dispersion and structure changes of TiO2 were comprehensively analyzed. It was found that surface changes of TiO2 had a significant impact on the improved activity. From results of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS) and Raman, it was inferred that Ce ions were partially incorporated into TiO2 lattice, accompanied with the formation of defects and vacancies during solid-phase impregnation. Accordingly, CeTi catalysts from solid-phase impregnation exhibited superiority in adsorption and activation of reactants. Further result from monitoring the preparation process indicated that the evolved NO played an important role in promoting Ce doping through depriving oxygen atoms on TiO2 surface. The interaction between Ce and Ti was enhanced. The catalyst performed better in NH3-SCR, especially at low temperature, which testified the solid-phase impregnation could be an effective method to modulate interface structure for designing efficient catalyst.
  • Zhiling Tang, Chujun Wang, Wenjie He, Yuechang Wei, Zhen Zhao, Jian Liu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 939-942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.020
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    The catalytic performance of light-derived CO2 reduction with H2O is strongly dependent on the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. Herein, the direct Z-scheme catalysts (g-C3N4/3DOM-WO3) of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets decorated three-dimensional ordered macroporous WO3 (3DOM-WO3) were successfully fabricated by using the in-situ colloidal crystal template method. The slow light effect of 3DOM-WO3 photonic crystals expands the absorption of visible light and improves the utilization of light energy. The Z-scheme structure of g-C3N4/3DOM-WO3 catalysts is able to upgrade the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The g-C3N4/3DOM-WO3 photocatalyst, whose formation rate of CO product is 48.7 μmol g-1 h-1, exhibits the excellent catalytic activity for CO2 reduction. The transfer pathway of stimulated electrons over the g-C3N4/3DOM-WO3 photocatalyst is proposed and discussed. The present approach provides unique insights into the rational development of high-performance photochemical systems for efficient CO2 reduction into valuable carbon-containing chemicals and energy fuels.
  • Bo Lin, Bowen Ma, Jiangang Chen, Yao Zhou, Jiadong Zhou, Xiaoqing Yan, Chao Xue, Xiao Luo, Qing Liu, Jinyong Wang, Renji Bian, Guidong Yang, Fucai Liu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 943-947. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.015
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    The recombination of charge carriers arriving from the random charge movement in semiconductor photocatalysts greatly limits the practical application of solar-driven H2 evolution. The design of photocatalytic systems with spatially oriented charge-transfer is a promising route to achieve high charge-separation efficiency for photocatalysts. Herein, novel sea-urchin-like ReS2 nanosheet/TiO2 nanoparticle heterojunctions (SURTHs) are constructed. The unique sea-urchin-like structure endows the ReS2 cocatalyst with an unusual charge edge-collection effect, which leads to a significant acceleration of charge separation and transfer, as evidenced by the well-designed selective photodeposition of Pt quantum dots in SURTHs. The markedly improved charge transfer capacity contributes to a high photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 3.71 mmol h-1 g-1 for SURTHs (an apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of 16.09%), up to 231.9 times by contrast with that of P25 TiO2. This work would provide a new platform for designing the high-efficiency cocatalyst/photocatalyst system with excellent charge transfer capacity.
  • Ruohan Zhang, Maolian Chen, Zhaokun Xiong, Yong Guo, Bo Lai
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 948-952. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.029
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    In this study, natural mackinawite (FeS), a chalcophilic mineral, was utilized to prepare iron/copper bimetallic oxides (CuO@FexOy) by displacement plating and calcination process. Various characterization methods prove that Cu0 is successfully coated on the surface of FeS, which were further oxidized to CuO, Fe3O4 and/or Fe2O3 during calcination process, respectively. CuO@FexOy performed highly efficient capacity to activate PMS for the degradation of various emerging pollutants including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), carbamazepine (CBZ), bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and diclofenac (DCF) in aqueous solution. Complete removal of the above pollutants was observed after 8 min of CuO@FexOy/PMS treatment. Taking SMX as an example, the key parameters including CuO@FexOy dosage, PMS dosage and initial pH were optimized. The results show that the catalytic system can be worked in a wide pH range (3.0-9.0). The quenching experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) test demonstrated that the main reactive oxygen species in CuO@FexOy/PMS system were hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and sulfate radicals (SO4·-), and SO4·- was the primary reactive species. Besides, the influence of coexisting anions (i.e., Cl-, NO3-, HCO3- and H2PO4-) for the degradation of SMX was explored. CuO@FexOy/PMS system can maintain good catalytic activity and reusability in different water bodies and long-term running. This work provided a green strategy to fabricate the efficient catalyst in PMS-based advanced oxidation processes.
  • Chuanying Liu, Qibin Yan, Xingwang Zhang, Lecheng Lei, Chengliang Xiao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 953-956. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.026
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    Recovering critical metals from secondary resources have attracted great interest recently. In this work, a green one-pot leaching-extraction process based on tributyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride (P44414Cl) aqueous biphasic system (ABS) was developed to efficiently recover rare earth elements (REEs) from NdFeB permanent magnet. The reaction process, phase separation mechanism, and operation conditions were thoroughly investigated. It is found that the P44414Cl-HCl ABS showed strong extraction ability towards Fe (> 99%) whereas only a few REEs (< 10%) were extracted, leading to extremely high separation selectivity between Fe and REEs. The characterization results showed that the coordination differences of Fe and Nd in HCl were the main driving forces for such highly selective separation. The phase diagram of P44414Cl-NdCl3 ABS indicated that the salting-out effect of NdCl3 was stronger than common chlorides. Due to the hydrophobic property of P44414[FeCl4] and salting-out effect of NdCl3, the P44414Cl could directly form ABS at room temperature after dissolving practical roasted NdFeB samples without any other operations and reagents. REEs and Fe could be mutually separated in just one step. Compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction or ABS separation, this recovery process is green and facile and shows great application prospects in the field of rare-earth recovery.
  • Honghong Fu, Yue Guo, Jian Yu, Zhen Shen, Jie Zhao, Yu Xie, Yun Ling, Sheng Ouyang, Shiqi Li, Wei Zhang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 957-962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.027
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    Various advanced microwave absorbing materials have been developed for reducing/avoiding the harm of microwave radiation. Among them, core-shell structural nanomaterials have been widely fabricated for microwave absorption. However, the "structure-performance" relationship between shell thickness and microwave absorption performance is rarely reported. In this paper, we first explored the "structure-performance" relationship between shell thickness and microwave absorption performance, based on the core-shell α-Fe2O3@SiO2 nanoparticles with a constant α-Fe2O3-core size and changeable SiO2-shell thickness. With increasing the SiO2-shell thickness, the microwave absorption ability first increased, then decreased. Under a proper SiO2-shell thickness of 35 nm, α-Fe2O3@SiO2 sample achieved the strongest microwave absorbing ability with a reflection loss minimum value of -4.3 dB, better than that of pure α-Fe2O3 (-3.8 dB). This enhanced microwave absorption performance was mainly derived from the dielectric loss. Although the absolute value of the reflection loss was relatively low (-4.3 dB), this study shed an important reference on designing next-generation advanced iron oxide-based materials for microwave absorption.
  • Yang-Hong Wu, Kai-Yan Yuan, Yan-E He, Heng Wu, Li-Jiao Ma, Gang Wang, Xiao-Dong Qiao, Bing-Xin Lei, Zhen-Fan Sun, Zhao-Qing Liu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 963-967. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.032
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    The waxberry-like mixed-phase TiO2 hollow microstructures (WMTHMs) are controllably prepared via a topotactic synthetic method, involving the synthesis of monodispersed CaTiO3 precursors by a solvothermal method and subsequently transforming them into TiO2 through a Na2EDTA-assisted ion-exchange process. The ratio of anatase-rutile is adjustable, and the two phases are connected well with each other. WMTHMs are composed of radially aligned nanorods, speeding up the electron transport. The optimum WMTHMs sample shows a specific surface area of 68.05 m2/g and exhibits an excellent light scattering capacity. The cell based on WMTHMs light scattering layer obtained an optimal efficiency of 9.12%. The improvement of cell efficiency is mainly attributed to the high specific surface area, the efficient light scattering, the appropriate ratio of anatase-rutile, the staggered bandgap structure, and the convenient one-dimensional electron transport channel.
  • Yuzhi Xu, Yanfei Zhang, Huihui Yang, Wen Yin, Leli Zeng, Shuo Fang, Si-Yang Liu, Zong Dai, Xiaoyong Zou, Yihang Pan
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 968-972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.041
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    A reliable and sensitive strategy which can assess nucleic acid levels in living cells would be essential for fundamental research of biomedical applications. Some nanomaterial-based fluorescence biosensors recently developed for detecting nucleic acids, however, are often with expensive, complicated and time-consuming preparation process. Here, by using a facile bottom-up synthesis method, a two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer (CP) nanosheet, [Cu(tz)] (Htz = 1,2,4-triazole), was successfully prepared after optimizing reaction conditions. These ultrathin CP nanosheets with thickness of 4.7±1.1 nm could readily form nanosensors by assembly with DNA probes, which exhibited a low limit of detection (LOD) for p53 DNA fragment as 144 pmol/L. Furthermore, by integrating [Cu(tz)] nanosheets with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) probes, miR-21, one kind of microRNA upregulated in many cancer cells, can be sensitively detected with a LOD of 100 pmol/L and monitored in living cells, giving consistent results with those obtained by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Thus [Cu(tz)] nanosheets, which not only possess much better nucleic acids sensing performance than bulk cystals, but also exhibit nucleic acid delivery functions, could be used as a novel nanoplatform in biomedical imaging and sensing applications.
  • Jingping Zhong, Jian Zhou, Minsi Xiao, Jun Liu, Jili Shen, Juan Liu, Sili Ren
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 973-978. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.040
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    A novel copper-based MOFs adsorbent (Cu-BTC-Th) was prepared using an one-step method by introducing a new organic ligand of 4-thioureidobenzoicacid (Th) with active groups for selectively adsorbing Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The chemical composition and structure of the prepared MOFs materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis, and zeta potential measurements. The adsorption capability of the prepared Cu-MOFs was significantly enhanced by introducing the new organic ligand of Th in the materials. The maximum adsorption capacity of the Cu-BTC-Th for Pb(II) attains 732.86 mg/g under the optimal conditions. In addition, the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm analysis showed that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir adsorption model, indicating that the adsorption of Pb(II) by Cu-BTC-Th was a monolayer chemisorption. The adsorption mechanism of Cu-BTC-Th for Pb(II) was discussed and revealed. On one hand, the adsorption of Pb(II) is mainly through ion exchange with the Cu(II). On the other hand, the -NH2 and -C=S functional groups introduced in the Cu-BTC-Th materials have stronger coordination ability with the Pb(II) ions to enhance the adsorption capability.
  • Jing Guo, Ruichen Shen, Xuejie Shen, Bo Zeng, Nianjun Yang, Huageng Liang, Yanbing Yang, Quan Yuan
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 979-982. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.048
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    Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumours with high morbidity, mortality and recurrence. However, currently developed detection methods for bladder cancer-associated urine biomarkers are hindered by their extremely low abundance. Hence, the exploration of a highly sensitive and selective approach for the detection of trace bladder cancer-associated biomarkers in human urine is of vital importance for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Herein, we developed a highly reliable indium gallium zinc oxide field effect transistor (IGZO FET) biosensor for the detection of bladder cancer-related biomarker microRNA. The single-stranded DNA-functionalized IGZO FET biosensors exhibit high sensing reproducibility and stability with an ultralow detection limit of 19.8 amol/L. The device could also be used for quantitative detection of trace microRNA in human urine samples and can effectively distinguish bladder cancer patients from healthy donors. The development of high performance IGZO FET biosensors presents new opportunities for the achievement of early-stage diagnosis of bladder cancer.
  • Qiaowei Chen, Chen Yuan, Chunyang Zhai
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 983-986. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.047
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    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor is an emerging technology in analysis as the advantage of fast response, high sensitivity and uncomplicated operation. In this study, an effective label-free PEC sensor for bisphenol A (BPA) detecting is constructed, in which ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 heterojunction is prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. The characterization outcomes display that the formation of p-n heterojunction helps for promoting the separation efficiency of photo-generated carrier. Under visible light irradiation, the ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 modified electrode exhibits broader liner range from 0.05 mmol/L to 30 mmol/L and lower detection limit of 0.016 μmol/L (S/N=3) with remarkable stability and reproducibility of detection BPA under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the constructed PEC sensor displays favorable potential for detection of BPA in practical applications.
  • Shanshan Qin, Gaozhi Ou, Biao Wang, Zheyu Li, Rui Hu, Ying Li, Yunhuang Yang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 987-989. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.045
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    Traditional soft lithography based PDMS device fabrication requires complex procedures carried out in a clean room. Herein, we report a photolithography-free method that rapidly produces PDMS devices in 30 min. By using a laser cutter to ablate a tape, a male photoresist mold can be obtained within 5 min by a simple heating-step, which offers significant superiority over currently used photolithographybased method. Since it requires minimal energy to cut the tape, our fabrication strategy shows good resolution (~ 100 μm) and high throughput. Furthermore, the micro-mold height can be easily controlled by changing the tape types and layers. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated that the fabricated PDMS devices are compatible with biochemical reactions such as quenching reaction of KI to fluorescein and cell culture/staining. Collectively, our strategy shows advantages of low input, simple operation procedure and short fabrication time, therefore we believe this photolithography-free method could serve as a promising way for rapid prototyping of PDMS devices and be widely used in general biochemical laboratories.
  • Chaozheng He, Haotian Wang, Ling Fu, Jinrong Huo, Zhiheng Zheng, Chenxu Zhao, Meng An
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 990-994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.09.049
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    CO2 is a representative prototype model in energy and environmental fields. Many factors for CO2 capture and activation have been investigated extensively but the research on the influence of thermal conductivity is still absence. We herein have calculated many properties, including dipole moment, electric structure, and adsorption energies, on Pt doped graphene and 2D BC3N2 substrates and served the thermal conductivity as the bridge. Our results have demonstrated that the lower (higher) thermal conductivity for 2D BC3N2 (graphene) corresponds to larger (lower) dipole moment, which is beneficial for CO2 activation (capture) process. Our research have not only revealed the dominant role of heat conductivity for CO2 capture and activation, but also paved the way for further catalyst design of various areas.
  • Qiuying Du, Baoqi Yin, Si Zhou, Zhixun Luo, Jijun Zhao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 995-1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.127
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    The activation of molecular oxygen is an important step in metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions and a hot subject for the research of gas-phase metal clusters. It is known that the Ag and Au clusters readily react with O2 when they have open shell electronic structures. Distinct from this, here we observed Cun- (n = 7-20) clusters of both open and closed shells possess high reactivity with O2 with few exceptions. In a combination with ab initio calculations, we demonstrate that the activation of O2 on the even- and odd-sized Cun- clusters follows the single and double electron transfer models, respectively. Such phenomenon of metal clusters with different basicity to activate oxygen is enabled by the leveling effect of spin accommodation. The activity of Cun- clusters is correlated to the HOMO level, and for the close-shell clusters is also governed by the vertical spin excitation energy (VSE). In encountering the attack of dioxygen, the activity of the copper cluster anions not only depends on their basicity to donate electrons, but also closely associated with the cluster sizes. Small copper clusters Cun- (n = 7-13) can dissociate O2 spontaneously, while large clusters require extra energies and display close relationship between the reaction rates and electronic vertical detachment energies (VDE). Our work illuminates a novel reaction mechanism between Cun- clusters and O2, which sheds light in manipulating the activity and stability of coinage clusters by controlling the spin and charge states.
  • Meng Zhang, Jin Dai, Shengmei Huang, Dan Fang, Yitao Liu, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding, Andreas Greiner
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1001-1005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.069
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    Electrocatalysis plays an increasingly important role in converting atmospheric molecules (e.g., N2, CO2 and H2O) to value-added products (e.g., NH3, C2H4 and H2). However, developing a simple strategy for preparing catalysts with high performance for the effective conversion of clean energy is still full of challenges. Herein, we describe a straightforward, one-step reduction method to achieve the formation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and the vacancy engineering of TiO2-x nanofibers (NFs) simultaneously, which can be accomplished in 5 min. Furthermore, a Pt/TiO2-x nanofibrous aerogel (NA) with an ordered cellular architecture is prepared through a directional freezing technology. The Pt/TiO2-x NA with excellent mechanical properties can be made into a self-supporting electrode for electrocatalytic N2 reduction reaction (NRR), showing high NH3 yield rate (4.81×10-10 mol/s cm-2) and Faraday efficiency (14.9%) at -0.35 V vs. RHE.
  • Yunan Yi, Junshan Li, Chunhua Cui
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1006-1010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.005
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    The electrocatalytic methanol conversion is of importance in direct methanol fuel cell, biomass reforming, and hydrogen generation. To achieve a "carbon-neutral" target, CO2 byproducts derived from biofuels should be mitigated. In contrast to the complete oxidation of methanol to CO2, the selective oxidation of methanol to formate is a CO2-emission-free route without the generation of toxic CO intermediates. Herein, we present a highly active catalyst based on transition-metal disulfide nanosheet arrays supported on Ni foam for methanol conversion. Through composition screening, we find that the FeCoNi disulfide nanosheet exhibits a highly efficient and selective methanol-to-formate conversion. The surface reconstruction of this catalyst allows us to produce 0.66 mmol cm-2 h-1 of formate at low potential (1.40 V) with high faradaic efficiency of >98%. This work offers a substantial composition tuning strategy to construct noble-metal-free active multi-metal sites for CO2-emission-free conversion of methanol to value-added formate.
  • Zhiwen Jiang, Yusong Wang, Guoqing Xu, Zhuoni Jiang, Zhiqing Ge, Mozhen Wang, Xuewu Ge
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1011-1016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.043
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    Excellent radiation resistance is a prerequisite for pressure-sensitive hydrogels to be used in high-energy radiation environments. In this work, tannic acid-modified boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS-TA) is first prepared as the radiation-resistant additive by a facile one-step ball milling of hexagonal boron nitride and tannic acid. Then, polyacrylamide (PAAm)-based pressure-sensitive hydrogel doped with BNNS-TA and Fe3+ ions is fabricated. The ternary BNNS-TA/Fe3+/PAAm hydrogel exhibits excellent compressive strength (at least four times the compressive strength of unfilled pure PAAm hydrogel), pressure-sensitive performance (gauge factor is up to 1.4), and performance recovery due to the combination of multiple intermolecular interactions, such as covalent crosslinking, hydrogen bonds, and ion coordination interactions. The BNNS-TA/Fe3+/PAAm hydrogel can be made as a pressure sensor installed in the control circuit or attached on the human body to detect human activities accurately. More importantly, the compressive strength and the pressure-sensitive performance of the BNNS-TA/Fe3+/PAAm hydrogel can be maintained after the hydrogel is irradiated by 60Co gamma-ray at an absorbed dose of 15 kGy. As a comparison, the compressive strength of the unfilled PAAm hydrogel is only a quarter of that before irradiation. This work not only reveals a facile method to achieve the preparation of chemically modified BNNS as a promising radiation-resistant additive but also provides a novel strategy for the development of pressure-sensitive hydrogel devices in radiation environments.
  • Peifeng Li, Jie Wang, Hong Chen, Hao Zhang, Cheng Li, Wenjie Xu, Renzhi Li, Lin Zhu, Nana Wang, Jianpu Wang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1017-1020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.084
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    We demonstrate hole-transport-layer-free light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on solution-processed multiple-quantum-well (MQW) perovskite. The MQW perovskite can self-assemble to a unique structure of vertically graded distribution with two-dimensional layered perovskite covered by three-dimensional-like perovskite at top, which can naturally form a barrier of electron transporting to the anode interface, thereby enhancing the charge capture efficiency. This leads to hole-transport-layer-free MQW perovskite LEDs reaching an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 9.0% with emission peak at 528 nm, which is over 6 times of LEDs based on three-dimensional perovskite with the same device structure, representing the record EQE of hole-transport-layer-free perovskite LED.
  • Xiaohan Cao, Hongliang Wang, Jialiang Yang, Ruiyang Wang, Xin Hong, Xinghong Zhang, Junting Xu, Hai Wang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1021-1024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.014
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    In this paper, the crystallization behavior of a novel poly(monothiocarbonate), poly(trimethylene monothiocarbonate) (PTMMTC), was investigated and compared with its polycarbonate analogue, poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC). It is found that PTMMTC exhibits strong crystallizability, while unstretched PTMC is amorphous. DSC and DMA results reveal that PTMMTC possesses higher glass transition temperature (Tg) and β-transition temperature (Tβ) than PTMC. Simulation based on density functional theory (DFT) shows that, the bond angle of C-S-C is evidently smaller than that of C-O-C, and thus a larger dipole moment. This leads to the stronger intermolecular interaction and more rigid chain conformation in PTMMTC, which is the origin of sulfur-substitution enhanced crystallization. The crystal structure of PTMMTC was preliminarily determined for the first time. PTMMTC has an orthorhombic crystal structure with a planar zig-zag chain conformation. The parameters of unit cell are a = 10.74 Å, b = 4.79 Å, and c (fiber axis) = 7.74 Å.
  • Dazhe Li, Longbo Luo, Jiadeng Zhu, Haimei Qin, Pengqing Liu, Zhaomei Sun, Yi Lei, Mengjin Jiang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1025-1031. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.021
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    Lithium metal is deemed as an ideal anode material in lithium-ion batteries because of its ultrahigh theoretical specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, the rapid capacity attenuation and inferior security resulting from the dendritic lithium growth severely limit its commercialization. Herein a novel hybrid gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) based on electrospun lithium sulfonated polyoxadiazole (Li-SPOD) nanofibrous membrane swelled by lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) ether liquid electrolyte is proposed to address the issue of lithium dendrites. The Li-SPOD membrane synthesized by a simple one-pot method exhibits excellent mechanical strength and thermal resistance due to its high molecular weight and rigid backbone. The electron-withdrawing oxadiazole ring and oxadiazole ring-Li+ complex, and N, O heteroatoms with lone pairs of electrons in Li-SPOD macromolecular chains facilitate the dissociation of -SO3Li group and Li+ transference. The hybrid Li-SPOD GPE exhibits both a high lithium-ion transference number (0.64) and high ionic conductivity (2.03 mS/cm) as well as superior interfacial compacity with lithium anodes. The LiFePO4-Li cell using this novel GPE can operate steadily at 2 C for 300 cycles, remaining a high discharge capacity of 125 mAh/g and dendrite-free anode. Remarkable performance improvements for the Li-Li and Cu-Li cells are also presented.
  • Simin Liu, Lei He, Yuzhen Wang, Pingping Shi, Qiong Ye
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1032-1036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.039
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    By the replacement of halogen anion, three new multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (thiomorpholinium)PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) were successfully synthesized and underwent reversible structural transformation above room temperature, accompanied by the anomalous change of dielectric constant. With the adjustment of the halogen anion from Cl to I in the inorganic skeleton, the space group is transformed from centrosymmetric space group P21/c ((thiomorpholinium)PbCl3) to chiral one P212121 ((thiomorpholinium)PbBr3, (thiomorpholinium)PbI3) at room temperature. The ordered-disordered transition of organic cations and the change of hydrogen bonds with the increase of temperature lead to above-room-temperature phase transitions. Ultraviolet absorption and second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements confirmed that both the band gap and SHG activity of (thiomorpholinium)PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) crystals were tunable. The band gaps reveal a broadening trend with 3.532 eV, 3.410 eV and 3.175 eV along the Cl → Br → I series. This work provides an effective molecular design for multifunctional organic-inorganic perovskites.
  • Hui Huang, Lingjun Kong, Wei Shuang, Wei Xu, Jie He, Xian-He Bu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1037-1041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.013
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    Development of low-cost electrode materials with long cycle life and high volumetric capacity is important for large-scale applications of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, an electrode made from Fe2O3 encapsulated with N-doped carbon (Fe2O3@N-C) via ZIF-8 coating and carbonization process is reported. A cavity was generated between the Fe2O3 and N-C material during the carbonization process that is conducive to alleviating the volume expansion of Fe2O3. As a result, the Fe2O3@N-C composite exhibits a high specific capacity (1064 mAh/g at 0.1 A/g) and cycle stability (803.6 mAh/g at 1.0 A/g after 1100 cycles) when used as the LIB anode. In addition, the influence of carbonization under air on the LIB performance was investigated by controllably changing the crystal phase of Fe2O3 and the thickness of the carbon layer. This work provides a new method for the design and fabrication of yolk-shell composite electrodes for LIBs and other applications.
  • Hongyu Ma, Yong Liu, Rui Xiong, Jianhong Wei
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1042-1046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.048
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    To obtain a high-performance heterogeneous photo-catalyst, herein, the hetero-structured ZnIn2S4-NiO@MOF (ZNM) nano-sheets are designed and prepared by partial pyrolysis of nickel-based MOFs (Ni-MOF) combined with the low-temperature solvo-thermal method. The results indicate that the NiO nanoparticles, produced by partial pyrolysis of the Ni-MOF, have a high density of the surface active sites with limited aggregation, which act as a co-catalyst to capture photo-induced charge carriers. In addition, the morphology and structure of Ni-MOF nano-sheets were preserved in ZNM, which is beneficial to the reduction of the conduction barrier for the photo generated electron-hole pairs. With the synergetic advantages of co-catalyst and unique two-dimensional hetero-structure, ZNM nano-sheets exhibited significantly improved activity for photo-catalytic hydrogen production.
  • Yitao Song, Yewang Peng, Shuang Yao, Peng Zhang, Yujie Wang, Jianmin Gu, Tongbu Lu, Zhiming Zhang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1047-1050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.045
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    A simple and effective method for constructing highly efficient oxygen reduction catalysts with trace amount of isolated cobalt was firstly developed by the pyrolysis of Co-centered polyoxometalate@metal-organic framework (Co-POM@MOF). The Co-centered polyoxometalate ([CoW12O40]6-) was confined in the well-defined void space of ZIF-8 to achieve homogeneous dispersion of polyoxoanions, where the isolated Co centers were well surrounded by the W-O shell and ZIF-8 framework. The Co-POM@MOF-derived N-doping porous carbon (Co-W-NC) with trace cobalt content was facilely prepared by the pyrolysis of the Co-POM@MOF under Ar atmosphere. The single dispersion of polyoxoanions in the metal-organic framework with complete separation of Co center surrounding by W-O shell and ZIF-8 framework ensures the uniform dispersion of Co atoms, confirmed by the Fourier transform extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurement. The Co-W-NC composite catalysts exhibit high performance for oxygen reduction reactions with a half-wave potential of 0.835 V in 0.1 mol/L KOH solution with excellent durability, which is much superior to that of the control samples derived from the [PW12O40]@ZIF-8, and the commercial Pt/C. This work highlights a new insight for constructing highly efficient catalysts via the introduction of metal-centered polyoxometalate into metal-organic framework following the high temperature treatment process.
  • Chaozheng He, Jia Wang, Ling Fu, Chenxu Zhao, Jinrong Huo
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1051-1057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.09.009
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    Nitric oxide reduction to ammonia by electrocatalysis is the potential application in the elimination of smog and energy conversion. In this work, the feasibility of the application of two-dimensional metal borides (MBenes) in nitric oxide electroreduction reaction (NOER) was investigated through density functional theory calculations. Including the geometry and electronic structure of five kinds of MBenes, the adsorption of NO on the surface of these substrates, the selective adsorption of hydrogen protons during the hydrogenation process, and the overpotential in the electrocatalytic ammonia synthesis process. As a result, MnB exhibited the most favorable catalytic performance according to the associative pathways, which is thermodynamically performed spontaneously, and WB has a minimum overpotential of 0.37 V vs. RHE in the process of ammonia production according to the dissociative pathway. Overall, our work is the first to explore the electrocatalytic NO through the dissociative mechanism to synthesize ammonia in-depth and proves that MBenes are efficient NO electrocatalytic ammonia synthesis catalysts. These research results provide a new direction for the development of electrocatalytic ammonia synthesis experimentally and theoretically.
  • Benben Huang, Mengzhou Yang, Xin Lei, Wen Gan, Zhixun Luo
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1058-1064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.04.020
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    We have prepared well-resolved Nbn+ (n = 1-10) clusters and report here an in-depth study on the essentially different reactivity with N2 and O2, by utilizing a multiple-ion laminar flow tube reactor in tandem with a customized triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MIFT-TQMS). As results, the Nbn+ clusters are found to readily react with N2 and form adsorption products NbnN2m+; in contrast, the reactions with O2 give rise to NbnO1-4+ products, and the odd-oxygen products indicate O-O bond dissociation, as well as increased mass abundance of NbO+ pertaining to oxygen-etching reactions. We illustrate how N2 prefers a physical adsorption on clusters with an end-on orientation for all the products, and allow for size-selective Nbn+ clusters to act as electron donor or acceptor in forming NbnN2m+. In contrast to these nitrides, the dioxides NbnO2+ display much larger binding energies, with O2 always as an electron acceptor, corresponding to superoxide or peroxide states in the initial reactions. Density-of-states and orbital analyses show that the interactions between Nbn+ and O2 are dominated by strong π-backdonation indicative of incidental electron transfer; whereas weak π-backdonation and simultaneous σ donation interactions exist in NbnN2+. Further, reaction dynamics analysis illustrates the different interactions for N2 and O2 in approaching the Nbn+ clusters, showing the energy diagrams for N2 adsorption and O-O bond dissociation in producing odd-oxygen products. Fragment analyses with orbital correlation and donor-acceptor charge transfer are also performed, giving rise to full insights into the reactivities and interactions of such transition metal clusters with typical diatomic molecules.
  • Yuanmeng Zhao, Xuewei Wang, Zhen Li, Pingping Zhao, Congliang Tao, Gongzhen Cheng, Wei Luo
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1065-1069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.05.038
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    Exploring highly efficient electrocatalysts and understanding the reaction mechanisms for hydrogen electrocatalysis, including hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media are conducive to the conversion of hydrogen energy. Herein, we reported a new strategy to boost the HER/HOR performances of ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles through nitrogen (N) modification. The obtained N-Ru/C exhibit remarkable catalytic performance, with normalized HOR exchange current density and mass activity of 0.56 mA/cm2 and 0.54 mA/μg, respectively, about 4 and 4.5 times higher than those of Ru/C, and even twofold enhancement compared to commercial Pt/C. Moreover, at the overpotential of 50 mV, the normalized HER current density of N-Ru/C is 5.5 times higher than that of Ru/C. Experimental and density functional theory (DFT) results verify the electronic regulation of Ru after N incorporation, resulting in the optimized hydrogen adsorption Gibbs free energy (ΔGH*) and hence enhancing the HOR/HER performance.
  • Yaling Jia, Fangshuai Zhang, Qinglin Liu, Jun Yang, Jiahui Xian, Yamei Sun, Yinle Li, Guangqin Li
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1070-1073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.05.052
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    Exploring platinum group metal-free electrocatalysts with superior catalytic performance and favorable durability for oxygen reduction reaction is a remaining bottleneck in process of developing sustainable techniques in energy storage and conversion. Herein, a hierarchical porous single atomic Fe electrocatalyst (Fe/Z8-E-C) is rationally designed and synthesized via acid etching, calcination, adsorption of Fe precursor and recalcination processes. This unique electrocatalyst Fe/Z8-E-C shows excellent oxygen reduction performance with a half-wave potential of 0.89 V in 0.1 mol/L KOH, 30 mV superior to that of commercial Pt/C (0.86 V), which is also significantly higher than that of typical Fe-doped ZIF-8 derived carbon nanoparticles (Fe/Z8-C) with a half-wave potential of 0.84 V. Furthermore, Fe/Z8-E-C-based Zn-air battery exhibits greatly enhanced peak power density and specific capacity than those of original Fe/Z8-C, verifying the remarkable performance and practicability of this specially designed hierarchical structure due to its efficient utilization of the active sites and rapid mass transfer. This present work proposes a new method to rationally synthesize single atom electrocatalysts loaded on hierarchical porous frame materials for catalysis and energy conversion.
  • Yifan Wang, Mingjun Zhong, Jie Li, Hao Tang, Richard Berndt, Yajie Zhang, Shimin Hou, Yongfeng Wang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1074-1076. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.05.060
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    Geometries of molecule-molecule interfaces strongly influence the current passing from one molecule to another. The contact conductance of molecule-molecule junctions which consist of fullerene and tin phthalocyanine molecules is investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. Two types of molecules are deposited onto Cu(111). Fullerene molecules are transferred to tips through controlled contact of STM tips on molecules. The molecule-molecule junctions are formed by approaching fullerene-terminated tips to tin phthalocyanine molecules on Cu(111). Our experimental method can be extended to study the intermolecular charge transport of a range of molecular junctions.
  • Difeng Yin, Yucen Li, Lingling Xia, Wenbo Li, Wei Chu, Jianping Yu, Miao Wu, Ya Cheng, Ming Hu
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1077-1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.05.073
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    Despite the continuously increased requirement on automated synthesis of medicines for distributed manufacturing and personal care, it remains a challenge to realize automated synthesis which requires solid-liquid phase reactions. In this work, we demonstrated an automated solid-liquid synthesis for gadopentetate dimeglumine, the most widely used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The high-efficiency reaction was performed in a 3D microfluidic chip which was fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining. The structure of the chip realized 3D shear flow which was essential for highly efficient mixing and movement of the solid-liquid mixtures. Ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectrometer was employed for in-line analysis to help automation of this system. Comparing with the round-bottom flask system, this synthetic system showed significantly higher reaction rate, indicating the advantage of the 3D microfluidic technology in micro chemical engineering.
  • Munir Ullah Khan, Safir Ullah Khan, Jiraya Kiriratnikom, Shah Zareen, Xinghong Zhang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1081-1086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.002
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    The development of effective and low-energy-consumption catalysts for CO2 conversion into high-value-added products by constructing versatile active sites on the surface of heterogeneous compounds is an urgent and challenging task. In this study, a stable and well-defined heterogeneous cobalt hexacyanocobaltate (Co3[Co(CN)6]2), typical cobalt Prussian blue analogue (CoCo-PBA) modified with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), is proven to be the superior catalyst for CO2 and epoxide coupling to produce cyclic carbonates with >99% yield under mild reaction conditions (1.0 MPa, 65 ℃). Based on a series of characterizations, it is revealed that the CoCo-PBA structure can maintain relatively high thermal and chemical stability. Recycling experiments exhibited that the CoCo-PBA system could retain 98% of the original activity after six reaction rounds. The CoCo-PBA/TBAB catalytic system was also highly active for coupling CO2 with other industrial-grade epoxides. These results show the CoCo-PBA catalytic system potential flexibility and the generality of the catalyst preparation strategy.
  • Yao Wang, Jingxiang Low, Yafei Bi, Yu Bai, Yawen Jiang, Huihui Wang, Weiyong Liu, Yuqian Ma, Yunuo Chen, Ran Long, Yujie Xiong
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1087-1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.007
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    The construction of core-shell structure is an effective strategy for promoting the emission efficiency of upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs). In this work, the UCNCs based on Nd-doping with a multilayer core-shell nanostructure are fabricated toward achieving efficient upconversion for 808 nm excitation, which have great potential for optical applications, especially photobiological applications.
  • Qinyuan Huang, Jinbo Hu, Mei Zhang, Mengxiao Li, Ting Li, Guangming Yuan, Yuan Liu, Xiang Zhang, Xiaowei Cheng
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1091-1094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.06.088
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    Wood-derived carbons have been demonstrated to have large specific capacities as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, these carbons generally show low tap density and minor volumetric capacity because of high specific surface area and pore volume. Combination with metal oxide is one of the expected methods to alleviate the obstacles of wood-derived carbons. In this work, the composites of MnO loaded wood-derived carbon fibers (CF@MnO) were prepared via a simple and environmentally friendly method, showing decreased specific surface area due to the generation of MnO nanoparticles on carbon fibers. Furthermore, the CF@MnO compostites exhibit superior electrochemical performance as anode materials of LIBs, which show high reversible capacity in the range of 529-734 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. The optimal CF@MnO product (MnO:carbon = 1:2) delivers reversible capacity of 734 and 265.3 mAh/g at current density of 100 and 2000 mA/g, respectively. Besides, the material presents outstanding stability with coulombic efficiency around 100% after 200 cycles at a high current density of 400 mA/g, revealing a potential as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs.
  • Chuang Bai, Fandi Ning, Saifei Pan, Huihui Wang, Yali Li, Min Shen, Xiaochun Zhou
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1095-1099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.07.008
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    A novel iron-hydrogen battery system, whose Fe3+/Fe2+ cathode circumvents slowly dynamic oxygen reduction reaction and anode is fed with clean and cordial hydrogen, is systematically investigated. The maximum discharge power density of the iron-hydrogen battery reaches to 96.0 mW/cm2 under the room temperature. The capacity reaches to 17.2 Ah/L and the coulombic and energy efficiency are achieved to 99% and 86%, respectively, during the galvanostatic charge-discharge test. Moreover, stable cycling test is observed for more than 240 h and 100 cycles with the iron sulfate in the sulfuric acid solutions. It is found that air plasma treatment onto the cathode carbon paper can generate the oxygen-containing groups and increase the hydrophilic pores proportion to ca. 40%, enlarging nearly 6-fold effective diffusion coefficient and improving the mass transfer in the battery performance. The simple iron-hydrogen energy storage battery design offers us a new strategy for the large-scale energy storage and hydrogen involved economy.
  • Jianghua Fang, Xiaoyang Zhu, Wendi Luo, Jianxun Shi, Lejia Wang, Bin Tu, Qingdao Zeng, Xunwen Xiao
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1100-1104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.030
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    The self-assembly characteristics of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives molecules 1-3 at the 1-phenyloctane/HOPG (HOPG = highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) interface had been carefully studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) method. The number of F atoms on the phenyl group had significantly affected the self-assembly structures. High-resolution STM images make clear the different assembly structures between the molecules 1-3, which attribute to the different F atom numbers and pyridine group in the molecule. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to reveal the formation mechanism.
  • Shuli Wang, Jiayun Zhu, Xiang Wu, Ligang Feng
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1105-1109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.042
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    A large surface area with high active site exposure is desired for the nano-scaled electrocatalysts fabrication. Herein, taking NiMoO4 nanorods for example, we demonstrated the advantages of the microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method compared to the traditional hydrothermal approaches. Both monoclinic structured NiMoO4 in the nanorods morphology are found for these samples but it is more time-saving and efficient in the Ni-Mo synergism for the catalyst obtained by microwave-assisted hydrothermal syntheses method. When evaluated for urea oxidation, the current density can reach 130.79 mA/cm2 at 1.54 V, about 2.4 times higher than that of the counterpart catalyst (54.08 mA/cm2). Moreover, largely improved catalytic stability, catalytic kinetics and rapid charge transfer ability are found on the catalyst obtained by the microwave-assisted approach. The high catalytic performance can be attributed to the high surface area and active site exposure of NiMoO4 nanorods formed by microwave irradiation. Considering the less time, facile synthesis condition and efficient components synergism, the microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method might work better for the nanostructure electrocatalysts fabrication.
  • Ming Zhang, Gaole Dai, Caijun Zheng, Kai Wang, Yizhong Shi, Xiaochun Fan, Hui Lin, Silu Tao, Xiaohong Zhang
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 2022, 33(02): 1110-1115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2021.08.064
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    Thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials capable of efficient solution-processed non-doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are of important and practical significance for further development of OLEDs. In this work, a new electron-donating segment, 2,7-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine (2Cz-DMAC), was designed to develop solution-processable non-doped TADF emitters. 2Cz-DMAC can not only simultaneously increase the solubility of compounds and suppress harmful aggregation-caused quenching, but also efficiently broaden the delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital and promote the reverse intersystem crossing process. Three new TADF emitters, 2-(2,7-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9,9-dimethylacridin-10(9H)-yl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide (2Cz-DMAC-BTB), 2-(2,7-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9,9-dimethylacridin-10(9H)-yl)-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (2Cz-DMAC-TXO), 2-(2,7-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9,9-dimethylacridin-10(9H)-yl)thianthrene 5,5,10,10-tetraoxide (2Cz-DMAC-TTR), were developed by using 2Cz-DMAC segment as the electron-donor. As anticipated, the solution-processed non-doped OLEDs employing 2Cz-DMAC-BTB, 2Cz-DMAC-TXO and 2Cz-DMAC-TTR as the emitters respectively exhibited green, orange and red emissions with maximum external quantum efficiencies of 14.0%, 6.6% and 2.9%. These results successfully demonstrate the feasibility and convenience of developing efficient solution-processable non-doped TADF emitters based on 2Cz-DMAC segment.